Understanding Grammar - Enough v Too
In this week's Premier Skills English Podcast, Rich is very tired and he doesn't know why. Jack thinks it might be Rich's diet or lack of exercise but it's actually something very different ... The language focus is on the words enough and too and how we use them to talk about things we would like to do more of and things we would like to do less. As always, we also have a new football phrase for you to guess. Enjoy!
Understanding Grammar - Too v Enough
Jack: How many football matches did you watch last weekend?
Rich: Just five.
Jack: Just five! That’s far too many! I watched two and my family think that’s two too many.
Rich: Maybe watching five matches was one too many but I just can’t watch enough football at the weekend!
Jack: Do you have enough time to do anything else?
Rich: Not last weekend. I don’t think I even got the chance to brush my teeth!
Jack: That’s so disgusting! Not good enough Rich
Welcome - Too and Enough
Rich: Hello my name’s Rich
Jack: and I’m Jack
Rich: and welcome to this week’s Premier Skills English podcast
Jack: Where we talk about football and help you with your English.
Jack: What’s happening this week, Rich?
Rich: In this week’s podcast, we are going to talk about things that we should do more and things that we should do less.
Jack: We’re focusing on grammar and we’re going to look at how we use two very common words. These words are too and enough.
Rich: You might have noticed that we used these words a few times at the beginning of the podcast.
Jack: I said that Rich watches too much football but I’m not sure he agrees … he probably thinks that he doesn’t watch enough!
Rich: That’s right. I still remember my sister’s wedding two years ago. The wedding was the same time as an important Liverpool match.
Jack: Don’t tell me you watched the match!
Rich: No! I’m not that bad … but I did check the score a few times on my phone!
Jack: Anyway, this is the language that we are looking at this week. Sometimes these words are a little bit confusing.
Rich: Don’t forget, there is more information about the language we use on the page below and activities to help you understand.
Jack: Make sure you listen to the end of the podcast because we’ve got another football phrase for you as well.
Jack: Morning Rich! Are you ready to get on with the podcast?
Rich: Jack. You’ve already been to the gym, haven’t you? I’m too tired to do this now.
Jack: Come on. Wakey wakey!
Rich: I’m so tired Jack. I think I must be coming down with something.
Jack: Come on! You’re not sick. Let’s have a think about what it could be. You’re probably not getting enough exercise. I was in the gym at seven this morning!
Rich: Seven. Pff! I’m not energetic enough in the morning to do that. I’m not a morning person.
Jack: You could go in the evening or the afternoon. I’m sure you’re not too busy.
Rich: Actually, I’m not sure if I have enough time …
Jack: Alright … what about diet? Are you getting enough fibre? Is that a bacon sandwich and a bag of sweets I can see? Too many of those are not good.
Rich: No, you’re probably right. But I don’t think I eat too many sweets and bacon sandwiches. I actually think I eat enough fibre - lots of fruit and vegetables.
Jack: Maybe you’re not organised enough. Do you plan your meals? Do you have three meals a day?
Rich: Maybe you’re on to something there. But I still don’t know why I’m so tired all the time.
Jack: If you can’t sleep, maybe it’s the temperature in your bedroom. It shouldn’t be too hot or too cold. If it’s just the right temperature it will help you sleep.
Rich: Maybe that’s it. It might be that I don’t get enough sleep.
Jack: That’s the obvious reason. How much sleep do you get?
Rich: Well, I was watching a bit of Brazilian football last night. You know with the time difference and everything the match didn’t start until midnight.
Jack: Mmm … too tired … well that’s why, isn’t it? You’re watching too much football!
Rich: Before we start looking at how we use the words too and enough, I’ve got a joke for everyone!
Jack: Really? Not another one!
Rich: It’s a really good one and it’s connected to the language we’re looking at this week.
Jack: Go on then. If you must.
Rich: Why do French people never have two eggs for breakfast?
Jack: I don’t know. Why do French people never have two eggs for breakfast?
Rich: Because one egg’s enough!!
Jack: Err … I don’t get it.
Rich: One in French un and egg in French is ouef. One egg is enough! Unoeuf! Enough! Unoef! Do you get it?
Jack: Yes, I get it (groan) That’s enough! Enough now!
Rich: In the last section, Jack and I spoke about things that I should be doing more or less of. Jack told me that I eat too many sweets and he told me that I didn’t get enough sleep!
Jack: And when we were speaking we used the words too and enough quite a lot.
Rich: Let’s look at the word too. Which is spelled t o o. It’s very common. Have a listen to this sentence. You will hear the word too three times but only one is spelled t o o. Which one is it?
Jack: Two players were too tired to carry on.
Rich: Listen again.
Jack: Two players were too tired to carry on.
Rich: It’s the second one. Too tired. Too with a double ‘o’.
Jack: Too means more than is necessary or more than you want. Rich was too tired. He wanted to be less tired.
Rich: Some common uses are you’re too old or too young to do something or a jumper or pair of shoes might be too big for you.
Jack: In these examples too is followed by an adjective. It can also be followed by an adverb. You could say don’t work too hard or don’t walk too fast.
Rich: When we use too with much or many too is followed by a noun. I eat too many bacon sandwiches. Jack said that I watch too much football!
Jack: A common structure with too is too plus adjective plus infinitive. For example it’s too cold to play football or he’s too young to drink wine.
Rich: In all of these examples too means the same; more than is necessary or more than you want.
Jack: I’m confused. What about too and so? I sometimes hear learners saying He has too many friends or I am too happy. These are wrong, but why?
Rich: It’s because too is (usually?) used to describe something that is negative. It would be strange for someone to say they have too many friends or they were too happy. Who wants to have fewer friends or be less happy?
Jack: So, which word should we use?
Rich: That word!
Jack: Which word?
Rich: So. We should say she has so many friends or I am so happy.
Jack: Aha - that’s cleared things up. I’m not confused any more.
Rich: Let’s look at the word enough now which is spelled enough. The spelling is a bit complicated. OUGH is a common cluster in English and there are lots of ways to say it. There is an activity and a worksheet on the podcast page if you want to know more.
Jack: Earlier Rich said that he didn’t have enough time to go to the gym and he wasn't energetic enough in the morning.
Rich: We use the word enough to say that we have as much as we need or want.
Jack: It’s probably more common in negative sentences like when Rich said he doesn’t have enough time, he doesn’t have as much time as he needs.
Rich: We can use an adjective or an adverb plus enough.
Jack: Rich said he isn’t energetic enough. Some other examples might be the player isn’t fit or good enough, or you didn’t do your exam well enough or quickly enough or carefully enough.
Rich: So, enough goes after an adjective or an adverb but when we use enough with nouns enough goes before the noun.
Jack: I don’t have enough time and I don’t have enough money are some common examples.
Rich: It’s the same when we use verbs. You can say someone doesn’t eat enough fruit or sleep enough.
Jack: It’s important to remember that in all these cases enough means sufficient or in negative sentences not as much as you need.
Rich: At the bottom of the page we ask you some questions about your life. We want you to tell us a few things that you do too much and a few things that you don’t do enough.
Jack: Write your answers in the comments section and respond to other listeners. Do you have the same problems?
Rich: This week’s task is some sentence transformations. These are language activities that are very common in English exams.
Jack: You have to read or listen to a sentence and then you have to rewrite the sentence using a keyword. The only problem is that you can’t change the meaning of the original sentence!
Rich: There are some sentences with gaps on the podcast page on Premier Skills English, but for those of you who are just listening, you’ll have to work a bit harder.
Jack: We want you to try to change the following sentences using too or enough.
Rich: We’ve got five of them for you.
Jack: Number one. Change this sentence and use the word TOO:
Rich: I couldn’t hear what the referee was saying because the crowd was shouting so much.
Jack: Number two. Change this sentence and use the word ENOUGH.
Rich: The player couldn’t see over the wall because he was so small.
Jack: Number three. Change this sentence and use the word ENOUGH.
Rich: We need more goals if we want to qualify for the next round.
Jack: Number four: Change this sentence and use the word TOO.
Rich: I didn’t go into the stadium because it was packed and there were no seats left.
Jack: Number five: Change this sentence and use the word TOO.
Rich: I didn’t buy the camera because I couldn’t afford it.
Jack: Some of those were a bit difficult. Listen to them again or look at them on the podcast page and write your answers in the comments section.
Rich: Have you got a football phrase for us this week?
Jack: Yes, I have, but first, last week’s football phrase. Last week’s phrase was to make your debut. It means to play for a team for the first time.
Rich: Well done to Liubomyr, Sabanoleg and Violinka from Ukraine, Lakerwang from China, Kwesimanigest from Ghana, MS Aboelsafa from Egypt, DVD023 from Spain, Haruyuki from Japan and Kurniawan2805 from Indonesia. You all got the right answer!
Rich: What’s this week’s phrase, Jack?
Jack: This week’s phrase is to ***** **** * *******. This phrase is used to describe what an attacking team need to do to score against a team that defends a lot. The attacking team has to create chances to score but this is difficult against a team that defends a lot. The attacking team has to ***** **** *** *******! An example could be … Manchester Utd eventually ***** **** the opposition ******* and scored in the 88th minute. They won 1-0.
Rich: That’s quite difficult. A phrasal verb and a football word.
Jack: Right, that’s all we have time for this week! Don’t forget to write your answers to our questions and make a guess at our football phrase in the comments below.
Rich: Also, if you are listening to us on iTunes it would be great to hear from you. If you are on iTunes write us a review and tell us where you are from and what you think of the podcast! We will mention you in next week’s show!
Jack: Bye for now and enjoy your football!
How much did you understand?
In the podcast, Rich and Jack used some words and phrases that might be new for you. Do you know the words in bold?
I'm so tired, Jack. I think I might be coming down with something.
Maybe you're on to something there but I still don't know why I'm tired all the time.
There were a few more tricky words in the podcast. Do you know what they all mean? Try the activity below, then, listen to the podcast again to hear how we used the words.
Too means more than is necessary or more of something than you want. You can use too in different ways:
Too + adjective/adverb
I'm too tired to do this now.
The match kicked off too late. I couldn't watch it.
Too much/ Too many
A noun always follows too much or too many:
Rich watches too much football.
Rich eats too many sweets.
Too + adjective/adverb + infinitive with to
This is a common structure that includes too:
It's too cold to play football.
She's too young to get married.
Should I use so or too?
Learners sometimes make mistake when using too and so. When we use too we are talking about things that are negative. Look at the sentences below. It would be strange to say that you are too happy! That would mean that you want to be less happy!
toohappy. I am so happy.
toomany friends. I have so many freinds.
Enough means sufficient or as much as is necessary or as much as you want. Enough is much more common in negative sentences than positive sentences. You can use enough in different ways:
Adjective/adverb + enough
That player isn't fit enough.
You didn't do the exam carefully enough.
Enough + noun
I don't have enough time.
I don't have enough money.
In the activity below, take a look at some sentences and put too and enough in the right places.
The word enough has a very complicated spelling. It ends in -ough. This is a very common cluster (group of letters together) in English. Learners often have problems pronouncing this cluster because it can be pronounced in many different ways. In fact, there are eight different ways to pronounce
-OUGH. Enough is pronounced /ɪˈnʌf/. The -OUGH sounds like -uff like in the words stuff or muffin. Here are the other ways to pronounce -OUGH with some example words. Can you practise saying all of them?
|-OUGH||Sounds like ...||-OUGH||Sounds like ...|
This week's task is to write five sentence transformations. You have to look at one sentence and then change the sentence and use the keyword (enough or too). When you change the sentences you need to keep the original meaning. Write your answers in the comments section. Here are your five questions:
I couldn’t hear what the referee was saying because the crowd was shouting so much.
The crowd were______________________ hear what the referee was saying.
The player couldn’t see over the wall because he was so small.
He was _____________________ see over the wall.
We need more goals if we want to qualify for the next round.
We _____________ goals to qualify for the next round.
I didn’t go into the stadium because it was too crowded.
I didn’t go into the stadium because there were _________ people.
I didn’t buy the camera because I couldn’t afford it.
The camera was __________ I didn’t buy it.
What do you think?
In this week’s podcast, Jack and Rich spoke about things they do too much of and things they don't do enough.
Do you do enough exercise? Do you get enough sleep? Are you energetic enough in the morning?
Do you watch too much football? What do you do too much? What do you not do enough of?
Look at the task above and write your answers below.
Remember to write your guess at this week's football phrase, too!